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"The Urban Food Forest, and The Urban Organic Mulch Permaculture Garden are the Future of Food Production on Planet Earth." - Matthew Stephens

 CHICAGO'S FIRST FOOD FOREST DRONE FOOTAGE from August 2014: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EgktBZCH0Ws

What is a Food Forest?

by Matthew Stephens

A Food Forest is an Agroforestry and Permaculture Design System that emphasizes maximizing biodiversity and uses the scientific principles of forest ecology as a foundation for food production.  It incorporates the techniques and strategies used in Organic Mixed Orchards, Forestry, Forest Gardening, Intercropping, Polyculture, Perennial Gardening, Agroecology, and Ecological Design into one system that is both a forest ecosystem and a fruit tree, nut tree, berry shrub, herbaceous, ground cover, and edible flower food production system.

FOOD FOREST RESOURCES

 

 

 

 

Hales Franciscan Food Forest - Designed by Matthew Stephens for Sacred Ecology Design

A food forest is a gardening technique or land management system, which mimics a woodland ecosystem by substituting edible trees, shrubs, perennials and annuals. Fruit and nut trees make up the upper level, while berry shrubs, edible perennials and annuals make up the lower levels.

SOURCE: http://www.beaconfoodforest.org/

drone footage screenshot

 

 

Google Earth 2015

 

 

    

Flash Earth: http://www.flashearth.com/?lat=41.804332&lon=-87.606767&z=19&r=0&src=msa

2015

 

    

Chicago's First Food Forest, Late August 2015, Designed by Matthew Stephens for Sacred Ecology Design

Chicago's Second Food Forest - Designed by Dallas Wright (Second Planting -Understory Trees, 10.29.15)

 

 

Master Three Tier Food Forest Pattern For A Dense and Intenseive 3 Species Polyculture Food Forest or Forest Garden. 

Designed by Matthew Stephens for Sacred Ecology Design.  Copyright 2015


 

Source:  http://www.ohio.edu/people/dyer/gifs/braun_for-reg.jpg

 

Layers of a Food Forest

1. Canopy Layer

 

9m+ high nut, fruit and nitrogen fixing trees (Only larger FFGs)

 

2. Low-tree Layer

 

4m high, Dwarf Fruit / Nut Trees
Nitrogen Fixers & smaller trees
Shade tolerant trees
Pruned into open form for light

 

3. Shrub Layer

 

Woody perennial plants
Flowering, fruiting, wildlife attracting

 

4. Herbacious Layer

 

Perennial vegetables
Self seeding annuals
Bee & poultry forage
Mulch & soil builders, cover crops

 

5. Groundcover Layer

 

Less than 30cm high
Low, prostrate, creeping plants
Forms a living mulch – retain, suppress weed growth

 

6. Rhizosphere (Root) Layer

 

Edible roots & tubers
Shallow rooted, easy to dig
Longer rooted left to flower for beneficial insects

 

7. Vertical Layer

Climbers, creepers, vines
Twine around trunks or up fences, trellises, etc.
Habitat and food
Only in established Forest Garden, can strangle young trees

 

Canopy:

Alder Alnus
American Persimmon Diospyros virginiana
Apple Malus sylvestris
Arazole / Mediterranean Medlar Crataegus azarolus
Black locust Robinia pseudoacacia
Carob Ceratonia siliqua
Cherry Prunus avium
Chestnut Castanea dentata
Chinese Chestnut Castanea mollissima
Cornelian cherries Cornus mas
European Plum (Myrobalan) Prunus domestica
Hawthorn Crataegus spp.
Highbush cranberries Viburnum trilobum
Honey locusts Gleditsia triacanthos
Japanese Walnut (Heartnut) Juglans ailantifolia
Korean Stone Pine Pinus koraiensis
Northern Pecan Carya illinoinensis
Pear Pyrus communis
Siberian Pea Tree Caragana arborescens
Stone pine Pinus pinea
Tagasaste/ tree Lucerne Cytisus proliferus
Walnut Juglans
Hawthorns Crataegus monogyna
Medlar Mespilus germanica
Mulberry Morus spp.
Quince Cydonia oblonga

 

 Understory:

Almond dwarf Prunus dulcis
Apple Dwarf Malus domestica
Apricot Prunus armeniaca
Australian Round Lime Citrus australis
Banana (Lady Finger) Musa acuminata
Beech Fagus sylvatica
Cherry Dwarf Prunus avium
Citrus Dwarf Citrus spp.
Crab Apple Malus sp.
Date-plum Diospyros lotus
Dogwood Cornus
Elderberry Sambucus nigra
Japanese peppers Zanthoxylum spp.
Fruit Salad Plant Monstera deliciosa
Nectarine Prunus persica v. nectarina
Olive Olea europaea
Pawpaw, Papaya Carica papaya
Peach Dwarf Prunus persica
Pear Dwarf Pyrus communis
Persimmon Dwarf Diospyros spp.
Plum Dwarf Prunus domestica
Service Tree Sorbus domestica
Tamarillo, Tree Tomato Cyphomandra betacea
Tree mugwort Artemisia arborescens
Bamboo ‘Gracilis’ Bambusa textilis ‘Gracilis’
Serviceberry Amelanchier spp.
Silverberry Elaeagnus
Acacia/Wattles Acacia spp.

 

Shrub Layer:

Acacia/Wattle Acacia spp.
Austral Indigo Indigofera australis
Blackberry Rubus fruticosus
Blueberry Vaccinium spp.
Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana
Currants Ribes spp
Curry Plant Helichrysum italicum
Edible Savlias Salvia spp.
Goji berries Lycium barbarum
Gooseberry Ribes Uva-crispa
Guavas Myrtus spp.
Jostaberry Ribes x culverwellii
Large Kangaroo Apple Solanum laciniatum
lavender lavandula angustifolia
Lemon Verbena Aloysia triphylla
Mountain Marigold Tagetes lemmonii
Nodding Saltbush Einadia wutans
Perennial Basil Ocimum gratissimum
Perennial Chilli, Rocoto Chilli Capsicum pubescens
Raspberry Rubus spp.
River Mint Mentha australis
Rose Rosa
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis
Scented Geraniums Pelargonium graveolens
Southernwood Artemisia abrotanum
Tomatillo Physalis philadelphica
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium

 

Herb Layer

Asparagus Asparagus officinalis
Balm Melissa officinalis
Borage Borago officinalis
Broad bean Vicia faba
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum
Calendula Calendula officinalis
Comfrey, Knitbone Symphytum officinale
Dill Anethum graveolens
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare
French Sorrel Rumex scutatus
Garden Mint Mentha sachalinensis
Garlic Chives Allium tuberosum
Globe Artichoke Cynara scolymus
Hyssop Cynara cardunculus
Lemongrass Cymbopogon spp
Lovage Levisticum officinale
Marigold Tagetes
Mint Mentha spp.
Oregano Origanum vulgare
Parsley Petroselinum spp.
Pepino, Pepino Dulce, Melon Pear Solanum muricatum
Perpetual/Perennial Spinach Beta vulgaris var. cicla
Phacelia Phacelia Tanacetifolia
Rhubarb Rheum rhabarbarum
Sorrel Rumex acetosa
Stevia Stevia rebaudiana
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare
Yarrow Achillea millefolium

 

Groundcover Layer

Alpine Strawberries Fragaria x vesca
Sweet Alyssum Lobularia maritima
Basil Thyme Acinos arvensi
Black Cumin Nigella Sativa
Clover Trifolium
Coral Pea Hardenbergia violacea
Corsican Mint Mentha requienii
Cranberry Vaccinium Oxycoccus spp.
Creeping Oregon Grape Mahonia aquifolium
Creeping Snowberry Gaultheria hispidula
Creeping Thyme Thymus serpyllum
Fat hen Chenopodium album
Ground Elder Aegopodium podagraria
Kamchatka Bilberry Vaccinium praestans
Lingonberries Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Lowbush Blueberries Vaccinium angustifolium
Marshmallow Althaea officinalis
Miner’s Lettuce Claytonia perfoliata
Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus
Pigface Carpobrotus modestus
Prostrate Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis ‘Prostratus’ or ‘Huntington Carpet’
Roman Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile
Running Postman Kennedia spp.
Sweet Violets Viola odorata
Vervain Verbena officinali
Warrigal Greens Tetragonia tetragonoides
Wintergreen Gaultheria procumbens

 

Rhizosphere Layer

Arrowroot Maranta arundinacea
Beetroot Beta vulgaris
Carrot Daucus carota sativus
Cassava (Tapioca) Manihot esculenta
Chicory Cichorium intybus
Chives Allium schoenoprasum
Daikon Raphanus sativus L.
Daylilly Hemerocallis fulva
Echinacea Echinacea angustifolia
Garlic Allium sativum
Ginger Zingiber officinale
Ginseng Panax spp.
Groundnut Apios americana
Horseradish Armoracia rusticana
Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosum
Liquorice Glycyrrhiza spp.
Native ginger Hornstedtia scottiana
Oca, New Zealand Yam Oxalis tuberosa
Onion Allium cepa
Parsnip Pastinaca sativa
Potato Solanum tuberosum
Salsify Tragopogon spp.
Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas
Tree/Egyptian Walking Onions Allium cepa var. proliferum
Welsh onion Allium fistulosum
Yacon Smallanthus sonchifolius
Yam Daisy Microseris scapigera

 

Climbing Layer

Cantaloupe Cucumis melo reticulatus
Chokos Sechium edule
Climbing peas Pisum sativum
Coral Pea Hardenbergia violacea
Cucumbers Cucumis sativus
Grape -Sultana Vitis vinifera
Grapes Vitis spp
Honeydew Melon Cucumis melo inodorus
Honeysuckle (Blue-berried) Lonicera caerulea
Hops Humulus lupulus
Kiwi Berry / Hardy Kiwifruit Actinidia arguta
Kiwi fruit Actinidia spp
Malabar Spinach Basella alba ‘Rubra’
Maypop Passiflora incarnata
Nasturtium (Climbing) Tropaeolum majus
Passionfruit Passiflora edulis
Perennial bean (scarlet runner bean) Phaseolus coccineus
Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo
Soybean Glycine max
Squash Cucurbita
Sweet Potato (‘Bush Porto Rico’/’Centennial’) Ipomoea batatas
Watermelon Citrullus lanatus
Wild grape Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris
Zucchini Cucurbita pepo

Source: http://www.thedesertecho.com/blog/food-forest-gardens-planting-guide/